Consumer review protection now is part of federal law. Specifically, in December 2016, Congress passed, and then-President Obama signed, the Consumer Review Fairness Act of 2016, 15 USC Section 45b.
Interestingly, this law has some similarities to – but is more detailed than – a law that California put into effect about two years earlier. See Consumer Non-disparagement Clauses Nixed in California. However, the federal law applies only to consumer reviews that involve interstate commerce. (more…)
This post is about a legal concept, constructive notice.
Its origin is a Quora answer that I provided. Please see If nobody reads the Terms of Service then how can they legally be acceptable as a disclaimer? (more…)
I am writing this post about calculating one’s share ownership percentage because of an email exchange I had on behalf of a client.
We had formed a Delaware corporation with 10 million authorized shares. Of the authorized shares, 8 million had been issued to the founder.
The founder and an independent contractor had agreed on equity compensation for the contractor. The agreed-upon share ownership percentage was 2%.
The contractor thought that he should receive 200,000 shares (2% of 10 million). The rest of this post explains how and why the contractor was incorrect. (more…)
The U.S. Copyright Office maintains designated agent records under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA). The Office recently announced that will be moving from paper to an online system.
This post discusses my surprise at finding that there apparently is no requirement that corporate officers be human beings.
My answer to a Quora question is the basis for this post. Please see Could an A.I. create a company and do all the functions typical of another company?
I was about to write an answer stating that corporate officers be natural persons (human beings). But with a bit of research, I found that apparently is not the case! (more…)
Novelty and non-obviousness are requirements for a utility patent to be granted in the United States.
This post explains the meaning of novelty and non-obviousness. I have based this on my answer to a Quora question. Please see What exactly defines novelty and non-obvious in regards to patenting?
USPTO on Novelty and Non-obviousness
I have copied, below (emphasis added), portions of what the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office says about these criteria. For more information, please see (more…).
This post discusses how one can avoid misappropriating a former employer’s trade secrets. I first wrote about this topic on Quora. Please see How does one make sure one doesn’t misappropriate software trade secrets?
Definition of Trade Secret
Unfortunately, there is no single definition of “trade secret”. Definitions vary somewhat from state to state, and the U.S. government recently created its own definition. (Please see (more…).)
One of my Avvo answers led me to write this post. Please see CA corp Certificate of Determination: must it include tag-along and drag-along provisions?
Corporations, by default, issue common shares to shareholders. However, corporations also can issue preferred shares. Preferred shares have characteristics (“preferences“) that typically make those shares more desirable than common shares. Please see What is Preferred Stock?
This post about the so-called Document Discriminator on driver’s licenses is somewhat off-topic for this blog. However, I find this tidbit of information so interesting that I feel compelled to write about it.
I first presented this information in a Quora answer that I wrote last month. Please see What does the DD on a Michigan driver’s license mean?
DD = Document Discriminator
DD is an abbreviation for Document Discriminator. A number of states started adding this piece of information to their driver’s licenses several years ago. (more…)
This post discusses when a California corporation must hold a shareholder vote.
It is based on an Avvo answer that I wrote recently. Please see Beside elections, are there corporate decisions that REQUIRE the vote of the shareholders?
California Shareholder Vote Requirements
A corporation must hold a shareholder vote to approve the following actions. Please note that this may not be a comprehensive list. Reference links are to the relevant California Corporations Code sections. (more…)